ISP Throttling: This Could Be Why Your Home Internet Is so Slow

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This story is part of Home Tips, CNET’s collection of practical advice for getting the most out of your home, inside and out.

Slow internet is incredibly frustrating and to make matters worse, it can be difficult to know why exactly your speeds are dragging. There are a number of different factors that affect Wi-Fi and home internet connections: Your router could be outdated or it could even be in the wrong location in your house. There may be easy fixes for these issues like upgrading to a mesh network or simply restarting your modem and router. But you may also be able to blame your slow Wi-Fi on something your ISP is intentionally doing — bandwidth throttling.

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Yes, you read that right. Your ISP could be making your Wi-Fi slower on purpose. Resulting from the 2019 Supreme Court decision declining to hear an appeal on net neutrality, ISPs can still legally stifle your internet, limiting your broadband if you’re streaming more TV than they want and serving slower connections to websites owned by their competitors. 

One solution to slow Wi-Fi — if it is, in fact, caused by internet throttling — is a virtual private network. Basically, ISPs need to see your IP address to slow down your internet, and a good VPN will shield that identity — though it comes with some limitations and downsides, which I’ll discuss below. We’ll walk you through how to tell if throttling is to blame and, if not, what to do about fixing your crummy Wi-Fi.

Read moreYou Can Get Free Wi-Fi Anywhere in the World. Here’s How

Step 1

First, troubleshoot your slow internet connection

So your Wi-Fi is slow and you think your service provider is throttling your connection. Before you jump to those conclusions, it’s important to run through the usual troubleshooting list: Check that your router is centrally located in your home, reposition its antennas, double-check your network security and so on. If you want to read about more ways to optimize your Wi-Fi, check out our suggestions.

If you’ve run through the laundry list and your Wi-Fi is still chugging slowly, move on to the next step.

Screenshot by David Priest/CNET

Step 2

Test your internet speed

 

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Step 3

Find a reliable VPN

 

Screenshot by David Priest/CNET

Step 4

Compare your speed with the VPN

Next, test your internet speed somewhere like Fast.com or Speedtest.net. Compare the results with the same test when your VPN is active. The use of any VPN should cut your speed considerably, so the speed tests should show a discrepancy, with the VPN-active speed being notably slower than the VPN-inactive speed. But a VPN also hides the IP address that providers use to identify you, so if your speed test with the VPN is faster than without the VPN, that may mean your ISP is targeting your IP address for throttling.

Screenshot by David Priest/CNET

OK, this is the hard part. Even if you find out your provider is throttling your internet, there may not be much you can actually do. Many people in the US live in regions with ISP monopolies or duopolies, so you might not be able to find a better provider. But here are a few useful responses:

  • If you do have options, use the best provider in your area. Measurement Lab provides a good resource for finding info specific to your region, and that can guide you to a more reliable ISP.
  • Use your VPN to maintain more consistent speeds. A VPN can’t solve a bad connection or other reasons behind your slow service, but it can mitigate throttling from unscrupulous ISPs.
  • Call your provider and threaten to switch providers if they don’t stop throttling your internet. This might seem old-fashioned, and I can’t guarantee lasting results, but providers have responded positively to such tactics when I’ve used them.

Read more about the best VPNs to use while working from home, the fastest VPNs and VPNs you can try free before buying. And here are the best high-speed ISPs and the best Wi-Fi extender for almost everybody

Correction, Feb. 10, 2020: This article previously misattributed 2019’s net neutrality ruling to the Supreme Court, rather than the DC Circuit Court that decided the case. The Supreme Court declined to hear the appeal.

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